Who do you think will be most affected?

Who do you think will be most affected?

Ok, let's assume that Model 3 is a "booming success" (similar to Model S), rave reviews, fanominal exposure by all auto magazines, headlining the nightly news , on nightline, etc...
Sales are off the charts.
If all the stars are lined up correctly, it'll be beyond comprehension.
If so, who do you think would be most affected in sales? BMW? Audi? MB? Any of the big three?
Honda? Toyota? Lexus? Infinity?
Your thoughts?

gar1116 | 5 luglio 2017

Exxon, Shell, Texaco...

Frank99 | 5 luglio 2017

I think the $35K-$50K sedan market of BMW 3 and 5 series, Audi A4/6, Acura, Lexus are all going to get hit - the same way that the high-end sedan market all took it in the shorts over the last several years due to the popularity of the S/X. It's hard to pick out any one that will get hurt worse than others.

Long term, I agree with gar. But I'd add in Lockheed, Boeing, BAE, Raytheon even longer term once we decide that we no longer care about Middle East oil.

dvanlier | 5 luglio 2017

People will probably spend more on a model 3 then they would on another car, so can probably get quite a few accord and Camry buyers who will spend more for the tech and self driving (assuming they get there first )

eeb9 | 5 luglio 2017

Agree with Frank pretty much across the board. Though the mid-East matters for more than *just* oil, it will hopefully be much less of an issue and we can be much more selective in picking allies in the region.

AJPHL | 5 luglio 2017

I think Honda and Toyota will take a bigger hit than some might expect. I see some current Accord and Camry buyers being willing to spend the extra to purchase M3 instead.

swingshiftworker | 5 luglio 2017


I'd never give up my BMW 335i for a Model 3. And I don't think anyone committed to the "performance" end of the BMW, MB and other marques would either. It's apples and oranges.

I may lease an M3 in 2.5 years after my Bolt lease expires but would still keep my 335i for the different type of driving experience (and I'm not saying it's the "ultimate" driving experience in any way) that it provides.

It's just different.

The same applies to my Toyota MR2, MB ML 350 and Ford F250. The Model 3 could never replace them but may be a satisfactory supplement to them, just as my Bolt is now.

Frank99 | 5 luglio 2017

Owning five nice vehicles moves you out of the "have to choose a vehicle to buy" category and into the "What vehicle do I feel like driving today" category. One of those is a zero-sum game for the automakers - a Model 3 purchase means BMW or Audi or Honda doesn't sell a car - and one isn't. I think the OP assumed a zero-sum game - it'll be interesting to see if it isn't.

cascadiadesign | 5 luglio 2017

Basically anyone in the transportation and related industries who fail to recognize we're now in the 21st Century will be negatively affected. Specifically I think any auto maker not planning to transition directly to BEVs is in trouble. Those who want to transition cautiously by going through a hybrid phase are in trouble.

TheChad | 5 luglio 2017

Nobody??? Well I guess I'm a nobody then. I am giving up my BMW for a M3. I am going to wait for the AWD version and most likely the P as well.

Coastal Cruiser. | 5 luglio 2017

swingshiftworker: BMW 335i, Toyota MR2, MB ML 350 and Ford F250? And I recall you grabbing a Bolt.

You're doin' pretty good for an inferred blue collar worker!

CraigW | 5 luglio 2017

Before Tesla I never owned a 'big' car and never wanted to. I loved the MBG and Fiat Spyders and mountain roads were my first love (love those F1 races).

In 2009 I decided I had to order the first EV car I actually might want to own. It was a problem that it was so large, and a 4dr sedan to boot.

After I took delivery of my 1st Tesla (an S60 in JAN 13) I started to understand this car was a very large car, masquerading as a sports car. My S70D simply confirmed this suspicion.

Now, I realize, this car isn't a true sports car, but in many ways it simply beats the pants of the competition. My suggestion - rent a Model S over a weekend and take it out for a drive. You may still keep your sports car in the garage, but your 3xxx series is probably going to simply disappear.

ReD eXiLe ms us | 5 luglio 2017

David N: Frank99 and dvanlier did a really good job of covering your inquiries. I'm not sure if I have much to add. But here's a few guesses...

Chevrolet will be fine as long as they can sell pickup trucks and SUVs. The entire Cadillac division will be outsold by the Model ☰ alone in 2018. Both Buick and Cadillac combined will be outsold by Tesla during 2019, if not sooner. I expect that overall, GM will realize they should have had more separation between those three divisions, as there is a lot of product overlap from the $30,000 to $50,000 price points. But they still are unlikely to release an electric vehicle that is better than the Cadillac ATS, Buick LaCrosse, or Chevrolet Malibu within the next five years.

Chrysler, Dodge, and RAM will perhaps see a resurgence led by those buyers who have been brainwashed into believing there is truly 'No Replacement for Displacement' and that 'saving gas' or 'conserving the environment' are somehow strictly 'Un-American' activities that must be haulted at all costs... At least until those guys begin to see signs that read "Six Bucks a Gallon! Please PAY before your PUMP!" Then their vocal praise of coal running and gas guzzling will fade to a faint whisper.

Ford is destined to become the leader in Hybrid vehicle sales, but that's about it. Just as the class leading BMW 3-Series was hardest hit by the announcement of the Tesla Model ☰...? The Ford F-Series pickup trucks will get kicked in the teeth when Tesla introduces a comparably priced pickup truck that outdoes the F-250, F-350, F-450, and F-550 'Superduty' pickups.

The high end traditional automobile manufacturers are all screwed. Each of their cash cow low end 'entry level luxury' cars is about to get soundly trounced. There will be no escape. As the Model ☰ becomes more popular, so will the Model S & Model X, and once the Model Y arrives, it will be frickin' over for those other guys. Anyone harboring a lasting hope that there is truly a 'limited market' for electric vehicles is about to learn just how incredibly wrong they have been.

Honda, Toyota, Hyundai, Kia, Mazda, Volkswagen, and a whole bunch of others will see their sales levels dip slightly. They'll just blame it on SUV & Crossover sales 'stealing' those for Sedans. No one will notice, or acknowledge, or accept the real reason is that anyone who is actually looking to purchase a new car may well be saving or waiting to get a Tesla instead.

swingshiftworker: OK. I love you! B'bye!

"Bubbles chases Mindy...
While Rita sings a verse!
The writer's sick,
We have no script,
Why bother to rehearse...?"

MarylandS85 | 5 luglio 2017

I think the 3 will hurt Camry, Corolla, Accord, and Civic sales. A lot of the people I know who drive reliable Japanese sedans aren’t car guys but are tech guys (read: nerds). I suspect a lot of them will spend $10-20k more for this reason.

I’ll be curious to see how the 3 does against the forthcoming Leaf.

bernard.holbrook | 5 luglio 2017

I was about to buy an AWD manual BMW 3 series but the Tesla 3 came along...

I'm driving a manual Volvo now but I would not have bought Volvo again as Volvo dropped the stick in 2008.

I guess that means that BMW lost a sale to Tesla in my case.

carlk | 5 luglio 2017

No questoin it will be BMW. You think any proud BMW owner who are used to show off to other could stand the thought that there is a good chance there will be cars at every light ready to embarrass him?

@swingshiftworker I have been a Porsche guy and now owns two Tesla. There are a lot of ex-Porshce owners like me who now drive Model S. Believe me 335i is a kiddie car soon as know how a Tesla drives.

carlk | 5 luglio 2017

By Porsche guys I mean people who owns 911 or Cayman. Sedans or SUVs are not Porsche.

jordanrichard | 6 luglio 2017

ReD eXiLe ms us +1, particularly about MB, BMW and Audi. The sales success of the Model S eroded their respective top of the line car sales. It is seriously embarrassing for MB that the Model S outsold their S-Class, not only in the U.S., but in Western Europe.

Now we have the Model 3 and that will equally erode sales of the C-Class.

noleaf4me | 6 luglio 2017

BMW 3 series will take the biggest hit for sure. Their 2017 sales are already way down in the US versus 2016 (check the stats....)

PhillyGal | 6 luglio 2017

1 - Prius, Fusion energi, Volt will tank in my humble opinion and have the largest year over year drop as a percentage of total sales
2 - BMW 3-series and the similarly sized offerings from Audit and Mercedes will see a drop, but not as significant as Prius, et al
3 - Camry, Accord, Sonata and other mid-20s sedans will drop a little because people will be willing/able to spend ~$8k more on a car that doesn't require gas or oil changes

Mapowing | 6 luglio 2017

Well, if you look at the price range, Nissan Leaf, BMW i3, Chevy Bolt are all about $35k-$40k. From aesthetics, Model 3 wins it handily. So there, Elon just killed those three.
Agree with Gar1116
Agree with Frank99

dyefrog | 6 luglio 2017

Another ex BMW traitor here. 545 getting kicked to the curb once my 3 arrives. Only reason I still have it is my Leaf range can't get me out of town and back. Can't wait for the INCREASE in performance measured by seat of the pants the 3 will have over the BMW V8. I've gotten a taste of the instant torque and it's addicting. I also expect the handling to be superior to the 5 series.

SUN 2 DRV | 6 luglio 2017

PhillyGal +1 Exactly my perspective too... there are a lot of folks from those categories who really stretched to get a Model S... now there are MANY more folks in that group who will move to a Model 3...

Fredbob711 | 6 luglio 2017

I can honestly say I don't know what I would be looking to buy if the Model 3 wasn't coming along. I drive a manual 4-cylinder 2008 Ford Fusion. It's been a great car, but getting a little long in the tooth. The Model 3 is coming along at exactly the right time
The mainstream brands (Ford, Chevy, Nissan, etc.) don't really make anything that interests me, and I have never really had the desire to 'step up' to a BMW or Lexus or any other luxury brand.
I wonder how representative I am of the the typical Model 3 buyer; past the entry-level car phase, looking for something new, but not interested in the 'prestige' of owning a legacy luxury brand.
I would reverse PhillyGal's #1 & #2, I think you'll see a bigger drop in BMW 3-series and the like from people like me not stepping up to their brand, but instead into a Tesla.
The legacy hybrid's will be hit pretty hard too, specifically the Prius. The Fusion Energi & Volt I don't feel sell in large enough numbers to have a noticeable drop numbers-wise, they're barely a footnote in the car industry.
Camry, Accord, Sonata, etc. won't be affected at first. Those are still solid, reliable cars at a relatively easy to reach price point. You might see a slight dip, but hardly noticeable. $8k might not seem like much of a jump when you factor in gas and maintenance, but people tend to look at their car payments in a vacuum. Anything that lowers that amount is good, even if it ends up costing them more in the end.

mountainj77 | 6 luglio 2017

Gas prices are super low right now, so I'm thinking they won't be hurt that much. They'll probably all come down in price. No one will lose money or be hurt, they just won't be as rich.

eeb9 | 6 luglio 2017

When gas prices drop, truck and SUV sales rise - it seems that they simply assume those low prices will just keep on keepin' on... there is something in the American psyche that feels entitled to low gas prices

Iwantmy3 | 6 luglio 2017

I think your all wrong about who will be hurt the most.

Yes, Audi, BMW, Mercedes, Ford, Toyota, GM, Exxon, BP etc. will all be hurt and the amount of hurt will grow over the next 5 years.

However, short term, the biggest losers will be Goldman Saks and all the rest of the short sellers who will get killed in the next year.

carlk | 6 luglio 2017

"I drive a manual 4-cylinder 2008 Ford Fusion."
"Camry, Accord, Sonata, etc. won't be affected at first. "

Yes these are appliance cars even though some of them are damn good appliances cars. Tesla is in a different category where BMW's, Audi's or Porsche's occupy. These are emotional cars or excitement cars. For people who buy them transportation is not the only priority or even the highest priority. These cars will go first. Then many people who buy appliance cars will want some excitement too when they could get both.

carlk | 6 luglio 2017

@Iwantmy3 I totally agree. Those shorts have no idea what is coming. The only thing that is in the way of Model 3 to replace ALL ~$30K+ cars in the world is people's lack of understanding of EV/Tesla and (unnecessary) range anxiety. All these will be changed when people start to see millions of these cars around them. And I have not even touched the subject of millions of Tesla with FSD capabilities.

SUN 2 DRV | 6 luglio 2017

CarlK: I agree with your analysis, but it leads me to a different conclusion.

The emotional car purchases won't initially be affected as much because they're motivated by "long held beliefs", "perceived status" and "exclusivity". However the "appliance" car purchases will convert to Model 3 orders relatively quickly because of the very straightforward and logical benefits. eg lower fuel costs, fun driving, high safety, sexy looks, convenience of "full every morning" and no more wasted time at the gas station (nor refueling wife's car for her).

Rocky_H | 6 luglio 2017

I think people get kind of overly enthusiastic, thinking the entire country is like where they live. I visited relatives in Lebanon Missouri this past year. There aren't any electric cars there. You watch the traffic for a long time just to see a single Prius even. They have been buying the same kinds of cars from the same dealers for a few generations who are friends of the family. That is a heavy inertia that is hard to move when they don't feel there is any problem with what they have been using and buying. Why should they try something different and weird when what they have is very normal and behaves just as they expect it to? This is the lifestyle of much of the rural middle of the country. Electric cars will be a very slow market penetration there.

noleaf4me | 6 luglio 2017

No one lives there Rocky.....

Rutrow | 6 luglio 2017

Rocky_H is right, but only to a point. When an electric car smokes their Camaro at the traffic light, they'll begin to come around. When an electric truck has the power to pull their back-hoe to the job site and their boat to the lake, the transition will be complete.

Haggy | 6 luglio 2017

It's hard to tell. With the Model S, there are specific cars that Tesla likes to point to as competitors. As Model S sales went up, sales of those others went down. Yet there are many owners who not only never owned those competing vehicles, but were also not considering them as alternative purchases.

I agree there might be people who might have bought a high end Honda who might not have considered an Acura but who might buy a Model 3. It's not much different from what happened with the Model S. Many people bought the Model S because it was the only model, and even though they could afford a car that was twice the price of their prior one, they never would have spent the money otherwise. If Tesla has a car for the price of the Accord, that might steal sales from the Accord, but given that Tesla has nothing cheaper, the Model 3 could steal those sales.

PhillyGal | 6 luglio 2017

@Fredbob - Insightful analysis

@Rocky - Excellent point. I've never lived outside city limits in my life (you'd have to drag my corpse...) so I tend to forget about what it's like elsewhere.

carlk | 6 luglio 2017


It's easier for emotional car buyers to make a switch. Appliance car owners are the more cautious type who usually like to see others to prove it for them first. Those are people who read Consumer Reports instead of Motor Trend or Cars and Drivers. But then there are probably a third type, appliance car owners who read Motor Trend and are thinking about buying their first emotional car. Model 3 could just be that car they are looking for.

Rocky_H There aren't electric cars there now but then there will be one and another one and....pretty soon people will start to take notice. I remember in the early 90's I was in a hotel coffee shop somewhere in the Middle West, probably Indiana. I was siting next to a table of two older couples. One gentleman was kind of bragging to others I just bought a Honda Accord, real nice little car. That's the time when Japanese compact cars have already dominated the California market but still kind of a rarity in other parts of the country. We all know what happened since.

carlk | 6 luglio 2017

BTW I'm not sure what Consumer Reports will say about the Model 3 but I'm sure Motor Trend will have a lot of nice thing to say about it. Those are car guys who can best relate to emotional car buyers.

Rocky_H | 7 luglio 2017

@noleaf4me, Dismissive of most of the middle of the country as not mattering or not existing. That will go over well.

@Rutrow, Quote: “When an electric car smokes their Camaro at the traffic light, they'll begin to come around.”

When the electric car, which isn’t there, isn’t available to “smoke” anything…nothing will continue to happen, and everything will continue on exactly as it was before. I thought I explained that already.

Quote: “When an electric truck (which they’ve also never seen) [deleted irrelevant rest of comment]…”

@carlk, Quote: “There aren't electric cars there now but then there will be one and another one and....pretty soon people will start to take notice. I remember in the early 90's […] We all know what happened since.”

You are making my point for me exactly. Japanese car market penetration was already a slow process throughout the 70’s and 80’s, and you’re talking about how it was still slowly catching on in rural areas in the 90’s, and then you’re talking about “what’s happened since”, which is another 30 years onward. It isn’t the overnight or two or three year process people are ridiculously talking about in this thread. And that Japanese car example, which took freaking forever to catch on, was with cars that functioned exactly the same—with no drawbacks!!! When you’re talking about a type of car that operates kind of differently and requires people to change their driving habits or trip planning habits or install something at their house to use it, that’s going to be an even more difficult and slow transition.

neil.weinstock | 7 luglio 2017

Speaking for myself: I am currently driving my second Prius. An EV is the logical next step, so I am happy (well, maybe not happy but willing) to expand my next car budget to get a Model 3. I would *never* consider purchasing any of the models you might consider direct class competitors such as the BMW 3, Audi A4, etc.

So if we can extrapolate all reality from my personal situation (why not, this is the internet) then we can conclude that the M3 will be sucking up a lot of buyers from further downmarket. I would expect an impact to sales of hybrids and especially plug-in hybrids.

noleaf4me | 7 luglio 2017

Rocky - not dismissing the middle of the country -- but they make up a small percentage of the total and automakers will focus on the big numbers and that is around the big cities.....and they will not make special vehicles for a smaller part of the market. Just like when CA requires special emissions -- eventually it became standard as it was to complicated to have multiple systems.

BTW - I'm originally from the middle of the country. Don't live there any longer as there just is not the jobs there.

Rutrow | 7 luglio 2017

Rocky_H. When you said "There aren't any electric cars there." I figured you meant that in addition to there not being many that have been through town, there also wasn't much awareness of them in Lebanon MO. There also are probably no Lamborghinis either, but every good ol' boy at the Tastee Freez knows that they'd love to have one if they could afford it. From my vantage point here in Pig'sKnuckle Arkansas I know what I'm talking about. It doesn't require a critical mass of Teslas in every middle America town for the word to get around that EV's can perform as well as Earl's muscle car. And don't kid yourself that $60-70,000 is too much for rural folks to afford. I've seen plenty SuperDuty Dually Pickup trucks with every after-market do-dad and performance enhancer to bring the cost up to nearly the $100k. And those yahoo's still take them muddin'. The money in rural towns is there, it just isn't very well distributed.

ReD eXiLe ms us | 7 luglio 2017

Rocky_H: The point I tend to make is that Tesla cannot afford to wait that long. Hyundai was able to come to market with a sub-$6,000 car. And it was a piece of crap. It just happened to be a slightly better hunk of dung than was the Yugo... And it wasn't an altogether bad pile of feces compared to vehicles such as the Ford Escort and Chevrolet Chevette at the time.

But, Hyundai also happened to have the support of Hyundai Heavy Industries as well as the entire Korean Government to support their efforts. They could afford to be patient and gradually improve their products and increase their market penetration over the years. To the point where Hyundai/Kia has a larger presence in the U.S. than other foreign automobile companies that are decades older.
Tesla does not have the benefit of such deep pocket benefactors. So they must hit the ground running, and keep running, to stay ahead of The REAPER.

You may certainly have your doubts about the accelerated nature of Tesla's progression towards success acceptance, even in that big, wide open, empty space between the City of Los Angeles and New York City... But the big thing in their favor is precisely the fact that the cars are so different from ICE in operation and daily use. Once allowed to demonstrate that difference directly to the American public, without all the injunctions and roadblocks they have endured so far, to fully educate the public at large as to the benefits of electric drive, Tesla will grow very quickly. I believe it will be compelling to drive electric, in short order -- absolutely not the 100 years or more that Detroit bigwigs hope for -- and far less than the 20-to-40 years that certain ANALysts assume would be necessary. Tony Seba is closest in his predictions, but even there he is being rather conservative.

neil.weinstock added parenthetically, "...(why not, this is the internet)..."

+42! PreCISEly! The Ultimate Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything about 'Why Do I Insist that People Consider Possibilities that May Be Over-the-Top Optimistic...?'

LostInTx | 7 luglio 2017

I've been a Toyota guy for 30 years and have view BMW & MB as needlessly extravagant toys. My Model 3 will be the first foray into anything approaching non-conventional. But I have learned friends who won't take the plunge, the reasons including a section of an email I received last week regarding the Model 3:

I am very glad there are people like out there who will take the hit for people like me as they endure the inevitable inconveniences of wringing out the bugs of new consumer technology. I'll buy version 3, as usual, once Elon and the boys figure out everything they haven't encountered or thought about yet in building and supporting great fleets of these beauties.

When Tesla can grab guys like these Ford and Chevy drivers, the revolution.. is.. on..

Cheerio | 7 luglio 2017

If I were not getting the Model 3, I would be looking at either a Lexus RX450h or a Ford F-150 Platinum. I realize that those two vehicles are nowhere near the same class of vehicle, but they are about in the same price range (60k, which is what I expect my Model 3 to be around after options).

What appeals to me in the Model 3 over those other two is the gasoline savings, technology, and instant torque / acceleration. So I am willing to forgo my usual preferences of more spaciousness, size, and cargo capacity to buy a smaller car; point being, if I feel this way there is to be others... Model 3 will cannabilize more sales than just other sedans.

SUN 2 DRV | 7 luglio 2017

CarlK; +1 "But then there are probably a third type, appliance car owners who read Motor Trend and are thinking about buying their first emotional car. Model 3 could just be that car they are looking for."

Yes, exactly... although the Model 3 is in the BMW 3 class, it will also "emotionally" and "financially" appeal to the huge group of "appliance" car buyers.

swingshiftworker | 7 luglio 2017

@ carlk said: "I have been a Porsche guy and now owns two Tesla. There are a lot of ex-Porshce owners like me who now drive Model S. Believe me 335i is a kiddie car soon as know how a Tesla drives."

A Telsa is nothing like a 911. I think you know that. In fact, I've been looking for a used cabriolet to add to my collection. If you like your Model S better, that's fine. I've test driven a Model S and it just looks, feels and drives like typically big sedan to me.

I'll admit that there are a lot of faster and better handling cars than the 335i but it's the one I've got. It's a project car and toy for me but It's the faster car currently in my stable (after I added an aftermarket IC and a Cobb tune but some suspension mods) but it's a "sleeper" that those unfamiliar w/the marque would never believe could go so fast. I've had encounters with Vettes, MB and Porches on occasion on the road and, while we technically were not racing, they never passed me until I let them..

In any event, it's even better for me and other sports car enthusiasts, if everyone dumping their Porsches, BMWs and other performance autos for a Model S or 3 helps lower the used car prices for them so that I can buy one even cheaper in the future.

@Coastal_Cruiser said: "swingshiftworker: BMW 335i, Toyota MR2, MB ML 350 and Ford F250? And I recall you grabbing a Bolt. You're doin' pretty good for an inferred blue collar worker!"

Retired and living well. Cars are a hobby of me. The Bolt is my daily driver. All of the other cars I just drive when I feel like driving them or when I need to make use of their particular features. The BMW is my project car; it's the only one I've put any significant amount of $ into in order to make it look/perform "better" (beyond the cost of normal wear/tear items).

Fact is, I bought all of my cars USED at a fraction of their sticker price. All are paid for except the 2012 MB that I just got for $20k (less than a 1/3 of the new price) and the Bolt which is leased. Combined monthly payment is just $600/mo. The total value of all of the vehicles (excluding the Bolt) is only about $50k, less than a tricked out Model 3 will probably cost and about the price of a early used Model S.

So, I'm frugal w/my money and I choose the cars I buy/lease carefully.

I had a Model 3 reservation that I cancelled after I got the Bolt. I plan to play close attention to the Model 3 during the roll out, what customer reaction to the car is, what problems if any in production arise and definitely plan to test drive one when/if the opportunity arises. If it meets expectations, it certainly will be among the then current crop of EVs that I'll consider acquiring when my Bolt lease expires in 2020.

carlk | 7 luglio 2017


Porsche and Tesla are not the same but if you read my other posts they are both emotional cars rathner than appliance cars. Porsche has been the ultimate emotional car but to many people now their emotion goes with Tesla. To many owners the Model S is the "you only live once" type emotional car much more so than Porsche. I believe the Model S has highest owner satisfaction score, which measures owner loyalty, while 911 has the second highest. So there you got it.

ReD eXiLe ms us | 7 luglio 2017

Mind. Body. Soul. Tesla.

swingshiftworker | 8 luglio 2017

@carlk: I agree that owning a car for an "enthusiast" generally is an "emotional" experience. Different strokes for different folks. I find it interesting that you feel that the Model S "moves" you emotionally more than a 911 but I certainly cannot take issue with that. It's what YOU think/feel about the cars that matters and if the Model S does it for you, so be it. Enjoy!

LA-Fohlen | 8 luglio 2017

Considering the price range and why people buy cars in a certain price range I would think it is the Audi, Mercedes, BMW, Lexus, Acura, Infinity type of cars that might see a drop in sales. Those cars are a bit of status symbols and Tesla fits right into that category.
Long term I would think that the car manufacturers adjust if they see how successful Tesla is with their technology. If they don't... too bad.

noleaf4me | 8 luglio 2017

I'm still sticking to my prediction that the BMW 3 series will be the most affected model. (total # of lost sales -- maybe not % but total #)